Swift refers to OpenStack Object Storage. Commercial implementations of that being:
Paths are specified as
remote: for the
command.) You may put subdirectories in too, e.g.
Here is an example of making a swift configuration. First run
This will guide you through an interactive setup process.
No remotes found, make a new one? n) New remote s) Set configuration password q) Quit config n/s/q> n name> remote Type of storage to configure. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value [snip] XX / OpenStack Swift (Rackspace Cloud Files, Memset Memstore, OVH) \ "swift" [snip] Storage> swift Get swift credentials from environment variables in standard OpenStack form. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Enter swift credentials in the next step \ "false" 2 / Get swift credentials from environment vars. Leave other fields blank if using this. \ "true" env_auth> true User name to log in (OS_USERNAME). user> API key or password (OS_PASSWORD). key> Authentication URL for server (OS_AUTH_URL). Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Rackspace US \ "https://auth.api.rackspacecloud.com/v1.0" 2 / Rackspace UK \ "https://lon.auth.api.rackspacecloud.com/v1.0" 3 / Rackspace v2 \ "https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0" 4 / Memset Memstore UK \ "https://auth.storage.memset.com/v1.0" 5 / Memset Memstore UK v2 \ "https://auth.storage.memset.com/v2.0" 6 / OVH \ "https://auth.cloud.ovh.net/v3" auth> User ID to log in - optional - most swift systems use user and leave this blank (v3 auth) (OS_USER_ID). user_id> User domain - optional (v3 auth) (OS_USER_DOMAIN_NAME) domain> Tenant name - optional for v1 auth, this or tenant_id required otherwise (OS_TENANT_NAME or OS_PROJECT_NAME) tenant> Tenant ID - optional for v1 auth, this or tenant required otherwise (OS_TENANT_ID) tenant_id> Tenant domain - optional (v3 auth) (OS_PROJECT_DOMAIN_NAME) tenant_domain> Region name - optional (OS_REGION_NAME) region> Storage URL - optional (OS_STORAGE_URL) storage_url> Auth Token from alternate authentication - optional (OS_AUTH_TOKEN) auth_token> AuthVersion - optional - set to (1,2,3) if your auth URL has no version (ST_AUTH_VERSION) auth_version> Endpoint type to choose from the service catalogue (OS_ENDPOINT_TYPE) Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Public (default, choose this if not sure) \ "public" 2 / Internal (use internal service net) \ "internal" 3 / Admin \ "admin" endpoint_type> Remote config -------------------- [test] env_auth = true user = key = auth = user_id = domain = tenant = tenant_id = tenant_domain = region = storage_url = auth_token = auth_version = endpoint_type = -------------------- y) Yes this is OK e) Edit this remote d) Delete this remote y/e/d> y
This remote is called
remote and can now be used like this
See all containers
rclone lsd remote:
Make a new container
rclone mkdir remote:container
List the contents of a container
rclone ls remote:container
/home/local/directory to the remote container, deleting any
excess files in the container.
rclone sync --interactive /home/local/directory remote:container
An OpenStack credentials file typically looks something something like this (without the comments)
export OS_AUTH_URL=https://a.provider.net/v2.0 export OS_TENANT_ID=ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff export OS_TENANT_NAME="1234567890123456" export OS_USERNAME="123abc567xy" echo "Please enter your OpenStack Password: " read -sr OS_PASSWORD_INPUT export OS_PASSWORD=$OS_PASSWORD_INPUT export OS_REGION_NAME="SBG1" if [ -z "$OS_REGION_NAME" ]; then unset OS_REGION_NAME; fi
The config file needs to look something like this where
represents the value of the
OS_USERNAME variable -
the example above.
[remote] type = swift user = $OS_USERNAME key = $OS_PASSWORD auth = $OS_AUTH_URL tenant = $OS_TENANT_NAME
Note that you may (or may not) need to set
region too - try without first.
If you prefer you can configure rclone to use swift using a standard set of OpenStack environment variables.
When you run through the config, make sure you choose
env_auth and leave everything else blank.
rclone will then set any empty config parameters from the environment using standard OpenStack environment variables. There is a list of the variables in the docs for the swift library.
If your OpenStack installation uses a non-standard authentication method
that might not be yet supported by rclone or the underlying swift library,
you can authenticate externally (e.g. calling manually the
commands to get a token). Then, you just need to pass the two
If they are both provided, the other variables are ignored. rclone will
not try to authenticate but instead assume it is already authenticated
and use these two variables to access the OpenStack installation.
You can use rclone with swift without a config file, if desired, like this:
source openstack-credentials-file export RCLONE_CONFIG_MYREMOTE_TYPE=swift export RCLONE_CONFIG_MYREMOTE_ENV_AUTH=true rclone lsd myremote:
This remote supports
--fast-list which allows you to use fewer
transactions in exchange for more memory. See the rclone
docs for more details.
As noted below, the modified time is stored on metadata on the object. It is used by default for all operations that require checking the time a file was last updated. It allows rclone to treat the remote more like a true filesystem, but it is inefficient because it requires an extra API call to retrieve the metadata.
For many operations, the time the object was last uploaded to the remote is
sufficient to determine if it is "dirty". By using
--update along with
--use-server-modtime, you can avoid the extra API call and simply upload
files whose local modtime is newer than the time it was last uploaded.
The modified time is stored as metadata on the object as
X-Object-Meta-Mtime as floating point since the epoch accurate to 1
This is a de facto standard (used in the official python-swiftclient amongst others) for storing the modification time for an object.
Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced, as they can't be used in JSON strings.
Here are the Standard options specific to swift (OpenStack Swift (Rackspace Cloud Files, Memset Memstore, OVH)).
Get swift credentials from environment variables in standard OpenStack form.
User name to log in (OS_USERNAME).
API key or password (OS_PASSWORD).
Authentication URL for server (OS_AUTH_URL).
User ID to log in - optional - most swift systems use user and leave this blank (v3 auth) (OS_USER_ID).
User domain - optional (v3 auth) (OS_USER_DOMAIN_NAME)
Tenant name - optional for v1 auth, this or tenant_id required otherwise (OS_TENANT_NAME or OS_PROJECT_NAME).
Tenant ID - optional for v1 auth, this or tenant required otherwise (OS_TENANT_ID).
Tenant domain - optional (v3 auth) (OS_PROJECT_DOMAIN_NAME).
Region name - optional (OS_REGION_NAME).
Storage URL - optional (OS_STORAGE_URL).
Auth Token from alternate authentication - optional (OS_AUTH_TOKEN).
Application Credential ID (OS_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL_ID).
Application Credential Name (OS_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL_NAME).
Application Credential Secret (OS_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL_SECRET).
AuthVersion - optional - set to (1,2,3) if your auth URL has no version (ST_AUTH_VERSION).
Endpoint type to choose from the service catalogue (OS_ENDPOINT_TYPE).
The storage policy to use when creating a new container.
This applies the specified storage policy when creating a new container. The policy cannot be changed afterwards. The allowed configuration values and their meaning depend on your Swift storage provider.
Here are the Advanced options specific to swift (OpenStack Swift (Rackspace Cloud Files, Memset Memstore, OVH)).
If true avoid calling abort upload on a failure.
It should be set to true for resuming uploads across different sessions.
Above this size files will be chunked into a _segments container.
Above this size files will be chunked into a _segments container. The default for this is 5 GiB which is its maximum value.
Don't chunk files during streaming upload.
When doing streaming uploads (e.g. using rcat or mount) setting this flag will cause the swift backend to not upload chunked files.
This will limit the maximum upload size to 5 GiB. However non chunked files are easier to deal with and have an MD5SUM.
Rclone will still chunk files bigger than chunk_size when doing normal copy operations.
Disable support for static and dynamic large objects
Swift cannot transparently store files bigger than 5 GiB. There are two schemes for doing that, static or dynamic large objects, and the API does not allow rclone to determine whether a file is a static or dynamic large object without doing a HEAD on the object. Since these need to be treated differently, this means rclone has to issue HEAD requests for objects for example when reading checksums.
no_large_objects is set, rclone will assume that there are no
static or dynamic large objects stored. This means it can stop doing
the extra HEAD calls which in turn increases performance greatly
especially when doing a swift to swift transfer with
Setting this option implies
no_chunk and also that no files will be
uploaded in chunks, so files bigger than 5 GiB will just fail on
If you set this option and there are static or dynamic large objects, then this will give incorrect hashes for them. Downloads will succeed, but other operations such as Remove and Copy will fail.
The encoding for the backend.
See the encoding section in the overview for more info.
The Swift API doesn't return a correct MD5SUM for segmented files (Dynamic or Static Large Objects) so rclone won't check or use the MD5SUM for these.
Due to an oddity of the underlying swift library, it gives a "Bad Request" error rather than a more sensible error when the authentication fails for Swift.
So this most likely means your username / password is wrong. You can
investigate further with the
This may also be caused by specifying the region when you shouldn't have (e.g. OVH).
This is most likely caused by forgetting to specify your tenant when setting up a swift remote.
To use rclone with OVH cloud archive, first use
rclone config to set up a
swift backend with OVH, choosing
pca as the
Uploading objects to OVH cloud archive is no different to object storage, you just simply run the command you like (move, copy or sync) to upload the objects. Once uploaded the objects will show in a "Frozen" state within the OVH control panel.
To retrieve objects use
rclone copy as normal. If the objects are in a frozen state then rclone will ask for them all to be unfrozen and it will wait at the end of the output with a message like the following:
2019/03/23 13:06:33 NOTICE: Received retry after error - sleeping until 2019-03-23T13:16:33.481657164+01:00 (9m59.99985121s)
Rclone will wait for the time specified then retry the copy.